Mindfulness (more info)

Further reading:

“Full Catastrophe Living” – Jon Kabat-Zinn Ph.D.
“Heal Thyself” – Saki Santorelli M.Ed.
“The Happiness Trap” – Russ Harris MD.
“After the Ecstacy, the laundry” – Jack Kornfield Ph.D
“The Miracle of Mindfulness: a Manual on Meditation” – Thich Nhat Hanh.
“Wherever you go, there you are : Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life” – Jon Kabat-Zinn Ph.D
“Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse” – by Zindel V. Segal, J. Mark G. Williams, John D. Teasdale. Guilford Press, 2002.
“Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications” – by Ruth A. Baer. Academic Press, 2006.
“Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Anxious Children: A Manual for Treating Childhood Anxiety” – by Randye Semple, Jennifer Lee. New Harbinger Pubns Inc, 2010.

Research and Effectiveness

While much research centered on mindfulness seeks to reduce stress, another large body of research has examined mindfulness as a tool to elevate and sustain “positive” emotional states as well and their related outcomes:

1)  Fredrickson (2008) studied the building of personal resources through increased daily experiences of positive emotions due to meditation. She found that meditation practice showed increases over time in purpose in live, social support, and decreased illness symptoms.

(Fredrickson, BL et al. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5).0

2) Davidson (2003) found that mindfulness meditation increased brain and immune function in positive ways, but highlighted the need for additional research.

(Davidson, RJ et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(3).)

3) Jain and Shapiro (2007) conducted a study to show that mindfulness   meditation may be specific in its ability to “reduce distractive and ruminative thoughts and behaviors”, which may provide a “unique mechanism by which mindfulness meditation reduces distress”.

Jain, S et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training:Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1).)

4) Arch (2006) found emotional regulation following focused breathing. A breathing group provided moderately positive responses to emotionally neutral visual slides, while “unfocused attention and worry” groups responded significantly more negatively to neutral slides.

(Arch, JJ and Craske, MG, (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12).

5) Brown (2003) found declines in mood disturbance and stress following mindfulness interventions.

(Brown, KW and Ryan, RM. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4).)

6) Jha (2010) found that a sufficient meditation training practice may protect against functional impairments associated with high-stress contexts.

(Jha, Ap et al. (2010). Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. )

7) Garland (2009) found declines in stress after mindfulness interventions, which are potentially due to the positive re-appraisals of what were at first appraised as stressors.

(Garland, E et al. (2009). The role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal. Explore-The Journal of Science and Healing, 5(1).)



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